They may also cite that Roosevelt himself endeavored to strengthen ties to Associatiln: politics before the Hatch Act stopped him. The McCluskey ad that helps him win shows his family in a provocative pose that "wins the grandmothers. In addition, Skeffington is depicted as rambunctious yet heroic, and improved the public image of Curley. Now he is looked upon with nostalgia, in part due to the book and film. Bulger, James Michael Curley: A Short Biography with Personal Reminiscences (Boston, 2009). Dorsett, The Pendergast Machine (New York, Celebratibg, pp.Index 0
All theorists agree that a specific orientation or point of view thatimposes order onto chaos is the sine qua non of coherent narrative historiography,which makes all truly "objective" history a delusion. Collingwood stressesthe subjectivity of historical narrative when he states in The Ideaof History (1946) that the imagination of the historian is framedby a priori structures of thought and that the historian 1899-1999 gaps between stable facts to give the narrative its continuity. Bradley dismisses "jarring witnesses" whose discrepant narrations remainoutside the boundaries of "legitimate" history, while Collingwood appearssympathetic to marginalized groups rendered "speechless" by the historian. Mink,who defines narrative as a form of cognition rather than mimesis, echoesthese ideas when he states in "Narrative Form as Cognitive Understanding"(1987) that "common sense of whatever age has presuppositions whichderive not from universal human experience but from a shared conceptualframework, which determines what shall count as experience for its communicants"(qtd. Similarly, Hayden White argues in The Contentof the Form: Narrative Discourse and Historical Representation (1987)that the narratorial point of view organizes the significance of historicalevents from a perspective that is culture-specific, not universal. Citing Hegel,White asserts that the state and its laws provide this center. In the ensuing chapter, Holton relates the ideas that emerge from thisdiscussion to concepts of the heterodoxic and heteroglossic in the worksof Pierre Bourdieu and Mikhail Bakhtin and refers to these conceptsin his subsequent analysis of historical fiction.